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7. MUSIC (2)

7.10. TOSCANA NEUMES

MS 1665 Italy, ca. 1000

7.11. BOLOGNA NEUMES

MS 105 Bologna, 11th c.

7.12. BENEVENTAN NEUMES

See also MS 063, Italy, late 11th c.
MS 1681 Montecassino, 2nd half 12th c.
See also MS 055, Italy, early 12th c.

7.13. CATALAN NEUMES

MS 1275/21 Spain, 11th c.

7.14. CISTERCIAN NEUMES

MS 721 France, 12th c.
MS 207 France, 12th c.

7.15. ENGLISH NEUMES

MS 2059 England, late 12th c.

7.16. METZ-GERMAN GOTHIC NOTATION

MS 1671 Germany, 14th c.
MS 209/41 Germany, late 14th c.

7.17. HUFNAGEL NOTATION (GERMAN GOTHIC NOTATION)

MS 1573 Germany, 14th c.
MS 1589 Belgium, 15th c.

7.18. "TÊTE DE MARTEAU" NOTATION

MS 1281 Norway (or Denmark?), 15th c.

7.19. SQUARE NOTATION

See also MS 222, France, 1300-1325
MS 1275/28 France, ca. 1400
MS 034 Italy, mid 15th c.
See also MS 198, Germany, 1430

7. Music

7.10 Toscana Neumes

MS 1665
ms 1665
SERVICE FOR THE DEDICATION OF A CHURCH, INCLUDING LARGELY THE HYMN, AD TEMPLI HUIUS LUMINA DEDICATA

MS in Latin on vellum, Italy, ca. 1000, 1 partial f., 24x15 cm, single column, (21x11 cm remaining), 11 lines remaining in Carolingian minuscule, 12 lines of Toscana diastematic (heightened) staffless neumes with the C clef indicated for each line, initial A in red filled with yellow and green wash, smaller red initials, some uncial, filled with yellow.

Provenance: 1. J. Voerster Collection, Stuttgart (-1993); 2. Bernard Quaritch Ltd., London.

Commentary: A very early example of the use and indication of the clef. "Clefs were first systematically used in functional liturgical MSS of the 11th century" (David Hiley in Grove's Dictionary, 1980, vol. 4, p. 473). Concerning the hymn, cf. U. Chevalier: Repertorium Hymnologium, no 295, where the piece is said to date from the 10th c. Toscana neumes are heavily influenced from Beneventan neumes. The main differences are in the epiphonus and the cephalicus.

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7.11 Bologna Neumes

MS 105
ms 105
MISSAL: THE MASSES FOR ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST AND HOLY INNOCENTS

MS in Latin on vellum, Bologna, Italy, 11th c., 1 f., 31x21 cm, 2 columns, (27x19 cm), 34 lines in an archaistic Carolingian minuscule of 2 sizes, headings in red, Bologna diastematic ( heightened) staffless neumes, 9 initials in red or marked with red, of these 2 5/6-line initials "I", a Maltese type cross.

Provenance: 1. Bernard Rosenthal Collection, San Francisco, I/196 (1966-1987); 2. Quaritch Cat. 1088(1988):39.

Commentary: Location and dating is difficult. Marvin Colker suggests France; John A. Emerson suggests Beauvais, Senlis or Soissons, both 12th c. Bologna region 11th c. is suggested by K.D. Hartzell, cf. Vat. lat. 4770 or Angelica 123 for similar notation. Bologna notation and North Spain notation have many neumes in common, present here, while the pes, clivis and torculus present here are distinctively North Spain notation. .

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7.12 Beneventan Neumes

See also MS 063, Missal, Italy, late 11th c.

MS 1681
ANTIPHONAL: FEAST OF ST. GREGORY AND VIGIL OF ST. BENEDICT MS 1681
MS in Latin on vellum, Montecassino, Italy, 2nd half of 12th c., 1 partial f. (ca. 1/2 f.), 13x21 cm, single column, (13x15 cm remaining, column width 15 cm), 6 lines remaining in a very fine Beneventan minuscule of the Montecassino type, 6 lines of Beneventan neumes on a single line red F-staff, 6 initials in red, 3-line initial in leafy design in black infilled with yellow-brown, 5-line initial B in very fine interlaced design of multiple spirals with entwined leaves and plants drawn in pale and dark brown and infilled in yellow-brown.

Provenance: 1. Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino (ca. 1150-); 2. Sotheby's 22.6.1993:14.

Commentary: The Vigil is of St. Benedict himself, the founder of Montecassino in 530. Though on a much smaller scale, the interlaced initial is of very high quality and can be compared with those in the Montecassino Breviary dated 1153, now J.P. Getty Museum MS. Ludwig IX.1. (Virginia Brown: A second new list of Beneventan manuscripts (III) p. 317; in Medieval studies, vol. 56 (1994).) A decisive advance in the development of notation was made when the scribe drew a horizontal red line to represent the pitch F, and grouped the neumes about the line. In time a second line, usually yellow, was drawn for C'. This invention of the staff made it possible to note precisely the relative pitch of the notes of a melody, and freed music form its hitherto exclusive dependence on oral tradition. It was one of the most important events in the history of music. (D.J. Grout: A History of Western music. London 1962, pp. 55-56.)

See also MS 055, Missal, Italy, early 12th c.

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7.13 Catalan Neumes

MS 1275/21 MS 1275/21
MISSAL OR GRADUAL: TEMPORAL, MASS FOR 1ST SUNDAY IN ADVENT

MS in Latin on vellum, North Spain, 2nd half of 11th c., 1 partial f., 8x13 cm, part of 1 column, (8x13 cm remaining), 3 lines in Carolingian minuscule, 4 lines of Catalan neumes on a single-line red F staff, a large, 7x7 cm, initial A in blue and red with red flourishing.

 

Context: Inserted in the Le Moine palaeography handbook, MS 1275/01.

Provenance: 1. Cathedral of Toul, Lorraine (2nd half 11th c.-1761); 2. Pierre-Camille Le Moine, archivist and secretary of the cathedral of Toul (1761-1789); 3. M. le baron de Tremont, no. 1253; 4. M. Marchant, Saint-Mihiel; 5. François-Jean Baptiste Noël, Nancy, no 6205 (-1856); 6. Bruce Ferrini, Akron, Ohio.

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7.14 Cistercian Neumes

MS 721 ms 721
BREVIARY: LESSONS FROM SERMONS AND SCRIPTURE, VERSICLES, RESPONSES AND AN ANTIPHON FOR THE FEAST OF ST. PETER AND PAUL (29 JUNE)
MS in Latin on vellum, France(?), mid 12th c., 1 f., 33x30 cm, 2 columns, (29 remaining x23 cm), 36 lines remaining in Romanesque book script of medium quality, Cistercian neumes on a 4-line staff, red F-line and occasional green line, 4 5-line penwork initials of ornamental leafy designs in red, green, blue, and yellow.

Provenance: 1. Bernard Rosenthal Collection, San Francisco, I/4(?) (until 1987); 2. Quaritch cat. 1147(1991):46.

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MS 207 ms 207
GRADUAL: SERVICE FOR GREGORY (12 MARCH), BENEDICTI ABBATIS (21 MARCH), ANNUNCIATION OF THE VIRGIN (25 MARCH) AND HOLY CROSS (3 MAY)
MS in Latin on vellum, St. Denis/St. Evrault region, Northern France, 12th c., 2 ff., 28x20 cm, single column, (25x15 cm), 10 lines in a formal Romanesque book script, Cistercian neumes on a 4-line staff, (yellow, green, red, green) with C- and F-clefs indicted,, 15 initials in red, blue or green, 2 large decorated initials in red.

Provenance: Provenance: 1. Bernard Rosenthal, San Francisco.

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7.15 English Neumes

MS 2059 ms 2059
MISSAL: MASS FOR THE EASTER VIGIL
MS in Latin on vellum, England, late 12th c., 2 ff., 28x21 cm, 2 columns, (23x15 cm), 25-26 lines in Romanesque book script of good quality, English neumes on a 4-line red staff with C clef, 2-to-5-line initials in red or green.

Provenance: 1. James Thomlinson; 2. English college or cathedral library (until ca. 1920-30); 3. Anthony Birdsall, Birdsall and Son, Northampton ( from ca. 1920-30); 4. Bernard Quaritch Ltd., London.

Commentary: 16th-17th c. pen-trials, and a note "After many combates the minde waxeth fainte and dull".

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7.16 Metz-German Gothic Notations

MS 1671 ms 1671
MISSAL: SERVICE FOR THE DEDICATION OF A CHURCH
MS in Latin on vellum, Germany, mid 14th c., 1 f., 37x26 cm, 2 columns, (28x19 cm), 33 lines in a formal Gothic book script of high grade, Metz-German Gothic notation on a 4-line staff with C clef, 1- to 6-line initials in red or blue, 2 3- to 4-line initials in burnished gold.

Provenance: 1. J. Voerster Collection, Stuttgart (-1993); 2. Bernard Quaritch Ltd., London.

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MS 209/41 ms 209/41
MISSAL: TEMPORAL, FOR WEDNESDAY AFTER PALM SUNDAY TO MAUNDY THURSDAY, AND GOOD FRIDAY
MS in Latin on vellum, Germany, late 14th c., 2 ff., 25x25 cm, 2 columns, (25x18 cm remaining), 31 lines remaining in a formal Gothic book script of medium grade, Metz- German Gothic notation on a red 4-line staff with C and F clef, headings in red, a 3-line and a 6-line initial in green, 1-line initials in red and green.

Provenance: 1. Theodor Ackermann, München (1984); 2. Bernard Rosenthal, San Francisco.

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7.17 Hufnagel Notation (German Gothic Notation)

MS 1573 ms 1573
ANTIPHONAL: 3 SETTINGS OF THE INVITATORY PSALM, VENITE EXULTEMUS
MS in Latin on vellum, Germany, 14th c., 1 f., 33x24 cm, single column, (29x18 cm), 14 lines in a formal Gothic book script of medium quality, 14 lines of Hufnagel notation on a 4-line staff, C- and F-clefs indicated, rubrics in red, 2 2-line initials in blue or red.

Provenance: 1. Dr. Fritz Zeileis, Linz, Austria (-1992); 2. Jörn Günther, Hamburg.

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MS 1589 ms 1589
ANTIPHONAL USE OF LIèGE: OFFICES FOR ST. GERVACIUS, ST. GANGULFO, ST. PETRONILLA, THE HOLY CROSS AND ST. VALERIANUS
MS in Latin on vellum, Liège, Belgium, 15th c., 2 ff., 35x23 cm, single column, (32x18 cm), 12+12 lines in Gothic book script of high grade and medium quality, music in Hufnagel notation on a red 5-line staff, C- and F-clefs indicated, 8 painted initials, 2 initials with penwork.

Provenance: 1. Erik von Scherling, Leiden, Rotulus 7: 2539, 2551, 2564; 2. Maggs Bros., London.

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7.18 "Tête de Marteau" Notation

MS 1281 ms 1281
CANTORINUS: READINGS FOR THE OFFICE OF THE DEAD, TAKEN FROM JOB 7, 10, 14, AND 19
MS in Latin on vellum, Norway (or Denmark?), 15th c., 1 f., 21x14 cm, single column, (19x14 cm), 8 lines in Norwegian cursive book script, + 8 lines of "Tête de marteau" notation on a 4-line staff, of a Scandinavian type, with C-clef indicated.

Provenance: 1. Sotheby's 19.6.1990:3.

Commentary: The Cantorinus is a very rare liturgical book. It was formed in the 14th or 15th c. after the Tonary. It is the booklet containing the musical (not liturgical) classifications of the Gregorian antiphons and responsories with addition of the soloists' songs. In "Tête de Marteau" notation the notes are shaped like hammer heads.

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7.19 Square Notation

See also MS 222, Missal, France, 1300-1325

MS 1275/28  
PAULUS DIACONUS: HYMN TO ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST ms 1275/29

MS in Latin on vellum, France, ca. 1400, 1 partial f., 13x10 cm, 1 of 2 columns, (13x10 cm remaining, column width 10 cm), 5 lines in a formal Gothic book script of medium grade, 4 lines of square notation on a 4-line red staff with C clef, headings in red, single red vertical red bounding lines, 1 red initial, a large, 3x3 cm, initial U in gold and blue, patterned in white, purple and black.

Context: Inserted in the Le Moine palaeography handbook, MS 1275/01.

Provenance: 1. Cathedral of Toul, Lorraine (ca. 1400-1761); 2. Pierre-Camille Le Moine, archivist and secretary of the cathedral of Toul (1761-1789); 3. M. le baron de Tremont, no. 1253; 4. M. Marchant, Saint-Mihiel; 5. François-Jean Baptiste Noël, Nancy, no 6205 (-1856); 6. Bruce Ferrini, Akron, Ohio.

Commentary: The text of the famous hymn to St. John the Baptist is attested from about 800. In the 11th c. Guido of Arezzo named the notes of the musical scale after the opening syllables of each line: Ut - Re(sonare) - Mi(ra) - Fa(muli) - Sol(ue) -La(bii). The syllables were by chance distinctive, and operated by reference to a textual order. In addition the first 6 lines of the hymn's melody began successively on the degrees of the scale c - a. The present MS has the same text, but a different musical setting.

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MS 034
  1. CONSTITUTIONES MONALIUM SANCTE MARIE MAGDALENE DE SENIS ORDINIS EREMITARUM SANCTE AUGUSTINI (THE RULE OF THE NUNS)
  2. CEREMONIAL WITH DIRECTIONS HOW THE LITURGY IS TO BE CONDUCTED AND SUNG, DEMONSTRATED WITH SEttingS OF MUSIC, ANTIPHON SINGING AND WESTMENTS, TONES AND CHANTS
  3. MUSICAL SEttINGs DEMONSTRATING THE TONES AND OTHER CHANTS FOR THE DIVINE OFFICE
  4. CONSTITUTIONES MONALIUM SANCTE MARIE MAGDALENE DE SENIS (THE RULE OF THE NUNS)
ms 034
MS in Latin and Italian (text 4) on vellum, Siena, Italy, mid 15th c., 68 ff. (complete), 23x16 cm, single column (17x12 cm), 24-34 lines in a rounded semi humanistic book script, text 4 in a fine sloping calligraphic italic 16th c. book script, written by order of Girolamo of Napoli, Augustinian Provincial General, 21 ff. of square notation on a 3- and 4-line red staff, with C- and F-clefs indicated.

Binding: Siena, Italy, mid 15th c. blindstamped calf over wooden boards, sewn of 3 cords, lower cover inset with contemporary Siennese painting of St. Maria Magdalene holding her jar of ointments, finely painted in colours and gold within pink border (once covered with horn), in the style of Guidoccio Cozzarelli (1450-1495) or by Andrea di Niccolo or his school. 5 brass bosses.

Provenance: 1. Augustinian Hermetical Convent of Santa Maria Maddalena, Siena (ca. 1450-1782 or later); 2. Richard Bladsworth Angus (emigrated to Canada in 1857); 3. Sotheby's 26.11.1985:99; 4. H.P. Kraus, New York. Deaccession May 2010.

Commentary: Contemporary accounts of how to perform medieval music are rare, and important for our understanding of how we shall perform it today.

See also MS 198, Antiphonal, Germany, 1430

ms 034
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