THE FALKLAND CHARTER

MS 1656
MS Short Title THE FALKLAND CHARTER
Text CHARTER OF ROBERT STEWART, DUKE OF ALBANY, EARL OF FIFE AND MENTEITH, GOVERNOR OF THE KINGDOM OF SCOTLAND, GRANTING TO WILLIAM DE CRAWFURDE DE MANUEL, KNIGHT, ALL THE LANDS OF "ERTHCHAMBERLAYNE" IN THE SHIRE OF STERLING, WHICH WILLIAM DE CRAWFURDE HELD HEREDITARILY. WITNESSES: GILBERT, BISHOP OF ABERDEEN AND CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND; MURDACH STEWART, 2nd DUKE OF ALBANY; JOHN STEWART, EARL OF BUCHAN; WILLIAM DE BORTHWIK; ROBERT DE MAXWELL; JOHN FORSTAVE; AND ANDREW DE HAWIKE, SECRETARY
Description MS in Latin with legal terms in Anglo-Saxon, proper names and endorsement in Middle Scots, on vellum, Falkland, Scotland, 24 April 1417, 1 f., 21x33 cm, (13x26 cm), 20 long lines in a Scottish secretary documentary script, large initial with penwork infill, Great Seal of Scotland in white wax, diam. 10 cm, showing the Governor Robert duke of Albany, seated, with a mounted knight in armour on the other side.
Binding Barking, Essex, 1995, red cloth gilt folding case, by Aquarius.
Provenance 1. Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Scotland (1417-); 2. Jeremy Griffiths, Oxford.
Commentary

The charter includes the Anglo-Saxon terms "Outfangandthief" and "Infangandthief", which is quite remarkable for a Scottish document. The terms refer to the jurisdiction over thieves both within and without the lands being granted.

The seal is showing the Governor in the place of King, James I, who, at this time was still a prisoner of the English, and was not crowned until his release in 1424. Both charter and seal are unrecorded.

Several witnesses of interest: Robert's eldest son Murdach spent many years in prison in England after being captured at the Battle of Homildon in 1402. He was executed before Stirling Castle on 25th May 1425 on a charge of high treason. Robert's other son, John Stewart, is famous for leading 6000 Scots to France and defeating the English at the Battle of Beauge, and was made Constable of France. He later raised another force of 10.000 men, but was defeated with great slaughter by the English on the 17th August 1424 at the battle of Verneuil.

Place of origin Falkland, Scotland
Dates 1417 AD

Location