9. Mathematics

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MS on clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3500-3200 BC, 1 tablet, 4,4x5,0x2,3 cm, 2 lines with 3 small circular depressions and 4 short wedges.

MS on clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3500-3200 BC, 1 elliptical tablet, 6,7x4,4x1,9 cm, 2+1 compartments, 2 of which with 3 columns of single numbers as small circular depressions.

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3500-3200 BC, 1 oblong bulla, diam. 2,5x6,5 cm, rollsealed with a line of animals walking left or 2 men standing with arms raised, pierced for holding a string of counting tokens.

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), diam. 6,0-6,8 cm, cylinder seal impression of several men facing tall ringstaff; and another with animals; token inside: 1 large sphere diam. 2 cm (D.S.-B.2:2).

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete),  impressions of a row of men each carrying a sack on his head towards a large cauldron on a rounded stand; a line of tall ringstaffs and men; impression of large disk token or bottom of large cone.

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), cylinder seal impressions of a row of men walking left; and of a predator attacking a deer, inside a complete set of plain and complex tokens.

Counting token in stone, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 4000-3200 BC, 1 ovoid token, diam. 2,0x2,3 cm, circular line at the top and piercing at the bottom.

Counting tokens in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 8000-3500 BC, 3 spheres: diam. 1,6, 1,7 and 1,9 cm , (D.S.-B 2:1); 3 discs: diam. 1,0x0,4 cm, 1,1x0,4 cm and 1,0x0,5 cm (D.S.-B 3:1); 2 tetrahedrons: sides 1,4 cm and 1,7 cm (D.S.-B 5:1).

MS on pink hard sandstone, New South Wales, Australia, ca. 20000-3000 BC, 1 cylindro-conical and cornute form cylcon flat base, 7 groups of 8-10 parallel lines in vertical rows converging at point, double lines of evenly spaced dashes below placed both transversal and longitudinal, 6 groups of 3+4+6 dashes, 6 groups of 6-9 parallel lines in vertical rows around base. .

MS on chalk-like stone, Werenia, Bourke, New South Wales, Australia, ca. 20000-3000 BC, 1 oval-conical triangular cylcon slanting rounded base, 3 series of regularly longitudinal lines of 12+9+14 evenly spaced parallel dashes, half of the surface worn away.

The Mathematics Collection of around 380 manuscripts starts with the beginning of mathematics in the 27th c. BC, and ends with Einstein. Here, 24 examples - including counting tokens that preceded mathematics as a means of counting and accounting- are presented as an introduction to the origins of mathematics.