9. Mathematics

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The Mathematics Collection of around 380 manuscripts starts with the beginning of mathematics in the 27th c. BC, and ends with Einstein. Here, 24 examples - including counting tokens that preceded mathematics as a means of counting and accounting- are presented as an introduction to the origins of mathematics.

Cylcon (Yurda) 1 | MS 5087/08

MS on chalk-like stone, Werenia, Bourke, New South Wales, Australia, ca. 20000-3000 BC, 1 oval-conical triangular cylcon slanting rounded base, 3 series of regularly longitudinal lines of 12+9+14 evenly spaced parallel dashes, half of the surface worn away.

Cylcon Yurda 2 | MS 5087/15

MS on pink hard sandstone, New South Wales, Australia, ca. 20000-3000 BC, 1 cylindro-conical and cornute form cylcon flat base, 7 groups of 8-10 parallel lines in vertical rows converging at point, double lines of evenly spaced dashes below placed both transversal and longitudinal, 6 groups of 3+4+6 dashes, 6 groups of 6-9 parallel lines in vertical rows around base. .

Neolithic Counting Tokens | 5067/1-8

Counting tokens in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 8000-3500 BC, 3 spheres: diam. 1,6, 1,7 and 1,9 cm , (D.S.-B 2:1); 3 discs: diam. 1,0x0,4 cm, 1,1x0,4 cm and 1,0x0,5 cm (D.S.-B 3:1); 2 tetrahedrons: sides 1,4 cm and 1,7 cm (D.S.-B 5:1).

Complex Counting Tokens | MS 4522/1

Counting token in stone, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 4000-3200 BC, 1 ovoid token, diam. 2,0x2,3 cm, circular line at the top and piercing at the bottom.

Bulla-Envelope | MS 4631

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), cylinder seal impressions of a row of men walking left; and of a predator attacking a deer, inside a complete set of plain and complex tokens.

Bulla-Envelope | MS 4632

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete),  impressions of a row of men each carrying a sack on his head towards a large cauldron on a rounded stand; a line of tall ringstaffs and men; impression of large disk token or bottom of large cone.

bulla-envelope-ms-4638

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3700-3200 BC, 1 spherical bulla-envelope (complete), diam. 6,0-6,8 cm, cylinder seal impression of several men facing tall ringstaff; and another with animals; token inside: 1 large sphere diam. 2 cm (D.S.-B.2:2).

Bulla: String of Tokens | MS 4523

Bulla in clay, Syria/Sumer/Highland Iran, ca. 3500-3200 BC, 1 oblong bulla, diam. 2,5x6,5 cm, rollsealed with a line of animals walking left or 2 men standing with arms raised, pierced for holding a string of counting tokens.