4.1 Early Writing

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 MS in Indus Valley language on white steatite, Mohenjo-Daro, Indus Civilization, ca. 2500-1800 BC

MS in Greek on copper, Cyprus, ca. 800 BC, 2 tablets, 21x13 cm, single column, (19x10 cm), 20-23 lines in archaic Greek capitals with some North Semitic (Phoenician) letter forms by 2 or more scribes.
MS in Ugaritic on clay, Ras Shamra, Ugarit, Syria, 13th c. BC, 1 tablet, 10,3x8,5x2,0 cm, single column, 10+11+3 lines in alphabetic cuneiform script.
MS in Canaanite West Semitic on bronze, Israel/Palestine/Lebanon, 18-17c BC, 1 axe, 1 line with 3 letters in Proto-Sinaitic/Proto-Canaanite script.

MS in Valdivian on grey limestone, Ecuador, 3500-1500 BC, central rectangular panel surrounded by double lines, crossed by diagonal parallelograms of double lines, filled with drilled holes, slightly curved corners.

MS in Minoan on clay, Knossos, Crete, 16th c. BC, 1 black roundel, 3,0x2,7 cm, 4 characters of late Minoan I Linear A script, 2 impressions (1,6x1,0 cm) on opposite edges by an amygdaloid seal with head of papyrus plant.

MS in an unknown pre Indo-European language on bone, Narbonne, France, ca. 4000-3800 BC, 4 lines with 5 different numbers consisting of single strokes, ca 16 pictographs and signs, paper label pasted.

MS in an unknown pre Indo-European language on stag bone, Bancal de la Coruna, Spain, ca. 4000-3800 BC, 1 line with 6 Ibero-Tartessian signs, paper label pasted on the back with 3 lines of cursive script.

MS in Chinese on oxen scapula bone, Xiaotun, China, 14th-12th c. BC, 1 bone, 11x7 cm, (6x6 cm), 4+2 lines in Chinese book script, prepared and cracked with burned marks on reverse.
MS in Chinese on red earthenware, Ganshu, China, ca. 2200-1800 BC, funeral urn, near spherical corpus with vertical ringlugs at the middle, tapering to a base, decorations in dark brown and light violet.
MS in archaic Egyptian on clay, possibly Abydos, Upper Egypt, 3007-2975 BC, 1 cylindrical jar, 7 hieroglyphs, including the cartouche of Aha surmounted by a falcon denoting the royal title "Horus", and "Shema" for Upper Egypt.
MS in archaic Egyptian on clay, Egypt, Nagada II period, 3500-3100 BC, 1 black top jar, diam. 13-6 cm, h. 28 cm, (7x18 cm), 1 line of 2 large protohieroglyphs incised in the clay.